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About Us

The Eastern Nile Technical Regional Office (ENTRO) facilitates the implementation of the Eastern Nile Subsidiary Action Plan (ENSAP), aimed at cooperative water resources development in the Eastern Nile Basin.

ENTRO is thus charged with facilitating the identification and preparation of investment projects in agriculture, environment, hydropower, and river basin management, as well as gathering pertinent hydrologic, socio-economic, environment related data and conducting analyses. The implementation of prepared investment projects is the responsibility of the national institutions of the member countries of ENTRO, Egypt, Ethiopia, South Sudan, and Sudan

In 2010, however, following disagreements over the conclusion and signing of the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) by six upstream countries, Sudan and Egypt froze participation both in the NBI and ENSAP. Sudan has returned to both NBI and ENSAP and resumed full participation since 2012. Egypt has continued freezing participation, although it participates in NBI organized events such as the Nile Day Celebrations, the Nile Development Forum and Development Partner Consultation Meetings. The newly formed South Sudan joined ENTRO in 2012.

ENTRO has delivered all seven initiatives identified under its first joint project - the Integrated Development of the Eastern Nile (IDEN). Although the flagship cooperative development program of the Eastern Nile, the Joint Multi-Purpose Program (JMP) was launched in 2005-6, the first envisaged project, the Joint Multi-Purpose Project 1 (JMP1), had to be discontinued midway through its Identification Phase when Egypt and Sudan froze participation in ENTRO activities in 2010. However, JMP1 identification studies delivered several substantial and useful outputs.

ENTRO works based on Strategic Plans, which are listed below:

  • ENTRO 1st Strategic Plan (2006-2010)
  • ENTRO 2nd Strategic Plan (2014-2019)
  • ENTRO 3rd Strategic Plan (2018-2022)


  • Egypt
  • Ethiopia
  • South Sudan
  • Sudan


The Eastern Nile Council of Ministers (ENCOM), comprising of Ministers in charge of Water Affairs of the Member States, is the highest policy and decision-making body for ENSAP. ENCOM makes all policy and political decisions, provides guidance and approves annual work plans and budgets, strategic plans, and reports, ensures smooth implementation of ENTRO’s activities, and Member Countries Contribution are current.

The Eastern Nile Subsidiary Action Program Team (ENSAPT), comprised of 3 senior government officials from each of the Members States, supports the ENCOM. ENSAPT provides technical support and advice on matters related to the management and development of the common Nile water resources, provides oversight for ENSAP programmatic activities, and also interfaces between the ENCOM and development partners, as well as between the ENCOM, ENTRO, and programmes and projects of the NBI.

NBI National Desk Offices: operate as Units within Ministries of Irrigation and Water Resources in each Member State, to follow up on NBI project and program activities in the respective countries.

The governance structure of ENTRO, is best understood by locating it within the larger governance structure of the NBI (see figure below).


Major events in the historical development of ENTRO are briefly outlined below.

Date Venue Event
May 1999 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • A Joint Technical Team established consisting of 3 members each from Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan
  • Strategic document formulated on the guiding principles of the ENSAP
14 Nov 2000 Cairo, Egypt
  • ENCOM agrees to establish ENSAP Secretariat. Ethiopia offers to host the Secretariat
28 Mar 2001   Khartoum, Sudan  
  • ENCOM 7th Meeting approves the establishment of an ENSAP PMU (Project Management Unit) to be managed by three nominated Senior Technical Staff (STS) representing each country.
  • ENCOM approved the seven projects of the first joint regional project, the Integrated Development of the Eastern Nile (IDEN), to be submitted for funding to the International Consortium for Cooperation on the Nile (ICCON):
    • Eastern Nile Planning Model
    • Flood Preparedness and Early Warning
    • Ethiopia-Sudan Transmission Interconnection
    • Watershed Management
    • Hydropower Development and Regional Power Trade
    • Irrigation and Drainage
    • Baro-Akobo Multipurpose Water Resources Development
18 May 2001 Cairo, Egypt
  • ENCOM 8th Meeting approves the name Eastern Nile Technical Regional Office (ENTRO) and its initial work plan and budget.
  • ENCOM approves the three [country] Seconded Technical Staff (STS) - one expert each from Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan - to co-manage ENTRO
  • Approves a revised IDEN Project Implementation Document (PID)
  • Ministers agree to a start-up Country Contribution of $12,000 per country to ENTRO
10 Jan 2002 Cairo, Egypt
  • ENCOM 9th agrees to increase the initial annual country contribution from $12,000 to $15,000
  • ENCOM adopted a decision to grant ENTRO legal personality in Ethiopia
13 Feb 2002 Cairo, Egypt
  • ENCOM chairman delegated to sign the ENTRO Headquarters Agreement.
4–6 Sep 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


  • ENTRO organized; hosted its first governance (13th ENSAPT, 12th ENCOM) meetings
6 Sep 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • ENTRO headquarters formally launched in a ceremony.
24 Jun 2004 Sharm El Sheik, Egypt
  • ENCOM decides to replace STS with competitive hiring of ENTRO Executive Director
  • Interim Executive Director assigned
4 Oct 2004 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • ENTRO 3 core positions defined and to be filled rotationally from each country
  • Decision reached to cover ENTRO core costs through country contributions
16 Feb 2005 Alexandria, Egypt
  • ENCOM approves the selection of the first competitively hired Executive Director of ENTRO.
1 May 2005 ENTRO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • ENTRO first Executive Director reports to duty
  • ENTRO first strategic plan (2006-2010) prepared
  • ENTRO Regional Project Coordinators hired
2006-2008 ENTRO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • ENTRO embarks on intensive investment project identification and preparation (watershed management, irrigation, power trade, flood)
  • ENTRO initiates work on multi-sectoral, large scale, transformational regional investment projects eventually called Joint Multipurpose Project (JMP)
  • ENTRO 1st Strategic Plan (2006-2010)
2008 – 2012 ENTRO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • NBI Institutional Strengthening Project begins
  • ENTRO restructured to its current form
  • From June 2010 ENTRO impacted by inconclusive negotiations over the Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) and the freezing of participation by Egypt and Sudan

July 2012 South Sudan joins NBI/ENTRO

2013 - 2020 ENTRO HQ
  • Nile Cooperation for Results (NCORE) project launched supported by World Bank managed Cooperation in International Waters in Africa (CIWA).
  • ENTRO embarks on water resources planning and management (flood forecast and early warning, seasonal forecast; internship) and water resources development studies (multi-sectoral investment opportunity Analysis, watershed management impact studies for scaling up; conjunctive use of ground water; study on irrigation efficiencies, etc.) and environmental and social safeguards.
  • JMP-1 Identification Study closes
  • Dam Safety mainstreamed at ENTRO
  • ENTRO 3rd Strategic Plan (2018-2022) prepared on the basis of revised 2nd Strategic Plan to harmonize with NBI 3-Center 10-year Strategy (2017- 2027)
  • GIZ/EU supported Coordinated Cascade Dam Operation studies and GIZ/FA supported Hydro-Diplomacy and communication activities begin
  • ENTRO enters into a partnership with Manchester University (UK) on Integrated Water Resources Modelling tools development