Nile Basin Initiative Secretariat

Support to Transboundary Cooperation in the Nile Basin
Water Resource Management
Water Security
Basin-wide Program
NileSEC Document


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  • Kebreab Ghebremichael, PhD Tirusew Asefa, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE Solomon Erkyihun, Ph.D. ,
  • 01 Aug 2020
  • Open Access
  • English (United States)
  • Technical Report
  • Like many regions across the globe, the Nile Basin countries face an increasing challenge of water resources allocation for their growing and competing supply needs in different sectors: agricultural, municipal and industrial, hydropower, navigation, water quality as well as meeting environmental needs to mention some. In addition, climate change induced rising temperature and reduction and/or shifting rainfall patterns across much of the basin will exacerbate the challenge. While traditionally most of the efforts have focused on assessment of adequate water supply and understanding its spatialtemporal changes, an integrated basin wide management cannot be considered without understanding water demand for different sectors and characterizing the gap between supply and demand. Often times these gaps are not trivial. This project aimed at developing a robust framework to estimate municipal and industrial water demand across cities in the Nile Basin countries. The specific objectives were to:  Develop/refine baseline water demand for municipal and industrial water use for 2016  Develop projection of water demand for municipal and industrial sectors for the Nile Basin through the year 2050  Develop viable scope for water saving from the municipal and industrial water use sectors through employment of various measures, such as demand side management, adoption of water efficient technologies and reduction of losses. To fulfil these key objectives the project team worked closely with Nile Basin Initiative (NBI)staff, technical staffs representing the Nile Basin countries, and national consultant that were retained for data collection in each of individual countries, wherever possible. The methodology that is used in this project started with extensive desktop research that provided background information on methods and tools for demand projection as well as coordinating with NBI staff through virtual meeting to set the framework. The project team presented its initial findings to a wider group of Nile Basin technical experts during the 5th Regional Expert Group workshop in Kigali, Rwanda that was held from February 23rd through 25th, 2019. Breakout sessions were formulated to elicit specific inputs from workshop participants. One of the most challenging aspects of the project was lack of data that was necessary for estimation of baseline water use as well as projection to the 2050-time horizon. To help alleviate some of these challenges, NBI retained the service of national consultant from most of the basin countries to collect required data1 . Accordingly, in collaboration with NBI staff, the project team designed an extensive survey document to capture information from municipalities, cities, and regions in the Nile Basin countries. This information was used as a basis for database design and implementation (Technical Note I), demand forecasting methodology development and implementation (Technical Note II), and assessment of demand management/water conservation measures (Technical Note III). These technical notes are summarized in the next section. Through this project, the team accomplished the following:  Developed an extensive survey and database collection framework for use with this project as well as accommodate ongoing activities.  Designed, implemented, and populated the first unified Nile Basin level database in Structure Query Language (SQL) frame for municipal and industrial water use collection, monitoring and modeling  Produced an estimate of industrial and municipal water demand through 2050.  Developed an assessment framework for water saving through implementation efficient technologies and alternative water sources

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