Wetlands and Ramsar Sites in the Nile Basin

Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that play an important role in maintaining environmental quality, sustaining livelihoods and supporting biodiversity. The wide range of animal and plant species wetlands support provide ecosystem that services in the form of fisheries, fuel-wood, timber, medicines, and the local and global biodiversity, providing high ecological, cultural and economic value through recreation and tourism. Wetlands also exert significant influence on the hydrological cycle, altering flood flows, maintaining low flows and groundwater recharge. The Nile River basin is rich with variety of natural resources (lakes, wetlands, highlands, ecosystem, biodiversity, etc.). In the basin a large population depends on the biodiversity and flood plains for their livelihoods. Most of the individual wetlands link to other wetlands through a complex network of permanent and..

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Water Use Infrastrcture in the Nile Basin

Water use is simply the amount of water used by a country or other lower entity such as a household. Some of the varied uses in the Nile basin riparian states include hydro-electricity generation, Municipal and Industrial water supply, agriculture, fishing, recreation, transport, tourism and waste disposal. Agriculture is a major livelihood strategy in the Nile Basin, sustaining tens of millions of people. It provides occupations for more than 75% of the total labour force and contributes to onethird of the GDP in the basin. An estimated 5.4 million hectares of land is under irrigation basin-wide, where over 97% of this area is in Egypt and Sudan. The actual area cultivated on average is approximately 6.4 million hectares. The total estimated annual irrigation water demand for irrigation is approximately 85BCM; the actual basin-wide withdrawal of water from the Nile for irrigation is ..

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Protected areas in the Nile Basin Region

This map shows protected areas with in the Nile Basin region. A protected area is defined as a geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. Protected areas can take on many different forms, such as national parks, wilderness areas, community conserved areas, nature reserves and privately owned reserves. The Serengeti and Masai Mara national parks feature the world famous annual migration of wildebeest, zebra and buffalo.The Sudd in South Sudan features equally impressive mass migrations of large mammals. Other Transboundary conservation areas of considerable significance are the three connected national parks of the Virunga Mountain chain (Virunga National Park, Karisimbi National Park and Bwindi National Park), home to the world’s..

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Major Subbasins

The Nile River flows through eleven countries (Burundi, DRCongo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan,Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda). The Nile basin comprises two broad sub-systems, these are the Eastern Nile sub-system and the Equatorial Nile sub-system. The basin was delineated into ten sub-basins (Main Nile, Atbara, Blue Nile, White Nile, Baro-Akobo-Sobat, Bahr El Jebel, Bahr El Ghazal, Lake Albert, Victoria Nile, Lake Victoria). These sub-basins featured five broad physiographic regions with diverse topography, drainage patterns and geomorphology. These physiographic regions include (1) highlands – plateaus and mountains; (2) open water surfaces (lakes – both natural and man-made); (3) wetlands and swamps; (4) flat lands; and (5) deserts. Each physiographic region has a more or less uniquecombination of surface, slope, soils, topography and vegetation. The first ..

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